2014年特码资料大全
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10 facts on nutrition

2013/8/2      view:
一个非洲婴儿被妈妈背在背上 

Malnutrition, in all forms, is a major contributor to disease and early deaths for mothers and children. Undernutrition, including vitamin and mineral deficiencies, contributes to about one third of all child deaths, and impairs healthy development and life-long productivity. At the same time, growing rates of overweight are linked to a rise in chronic diseases. The result is a double burden of malnutrition.

一名少年背着箩筐走在尼泊尔一条山道上。

 A key indicator of chronic malnutrition is stunting - when children are too short for their age group compared to the WHO child growth standards. About 165 million children globally are stunted, according to 2011 figures, resulting from not enough food, a vitamin- and mineral-poor diet, inadequate child care and disease. As growth slows down, brain development lags and stunted children learn poorly. Stunting rates among children are highest in Africa and Asia. In Eastern Africa 42% were affected as of 2011.

 一名尼日尔幼儿正在由母亲喂食强化食品。

Wasting and bilateral oedema are severe forms of malnutrition - resulting from acute food shortages and compounded by illness. About 1.5 million children die annually due to wasting. Rising food prices, food scarcity in areas of conflict, and natural disasters diminish household access to appropriate and adequate food, all of which can lead to wasting. Wasting demands emergency nutritional interventions to save lives.

一群亚洲儿童在餐厅用午餐。

Essential vitamins and minerals in the diet are vital to boost immunity and healthy development. Vitamin A, zinc, iron and iodine deficiencies are primary public health concerns. About 2 billion people are affected by inadequate iodine nutrition worldwide. More than one third of preschool-age children globally are vitamin A deficient. Vitamin A deficiency is the leading cause of preventable blindness in children.

Maternal undernutrition, common in many developing countries, leads to poor fetal development and higher risk of pregnancy complications. Together, maternal and child undernutrition account for more than 10 percent of the global burden of disease.

一位年轻的母亲用母乳喂养自己的新生儿。

For healthier babies, WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding for six months, introducing age-appropriate and safe complementary foods at six months, and continuing breastfeeding for up to two years or beyond. Worldwide, about 20% of deaths among children under-five could be avoided if these feeding guidelines are followed. Appropriate feeding decreases rates of stunting and obesity and stimulates intellectual development in young children.

一群青少年在食堂打饭。

Nutritional problems in adolescents start during childhood and continue into adult life. Anaemia is a key nutritional problem in adolescent girls. Preventing early pregnancies and assuring adequate intakes of essential nutrients for developing girls can reduce maternal and child deaths later, and stop cycles of malnutrition from one generation to the next. Globally, anaemia affects 42% of pregnant women.

一名妇女站在街边 

The rise in overweight and obesity worldwide is a major public health challenge. People of all ages and backgrounds face this form of malnutrition. As a consequence, rates of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other diet-related conditions are escalating worldwide. These are very difficult to treat in places with limited resources and with already overburdened health systems. About 43 million children under age five are overweight, according to 2011 figures.

 卫生工作者在测量一名女婴的头围。

Nutrition information is required to identify the areas where assistance is most needed. WHO released international child growth standards that provide benchmarks to compare children's nutritional status within and across countries and regions. Also, a nutrition landscape information system, developed by WHO and partners, provides country profiles on key nutrition indicators and affecting factors such as food, health and care.

一名妇女在露天市场挑选水果和蔬菜。

Science has moved forward, and evidenced-based actions that will improve nutritional health - particularly for the most vulnerable - are known. In response, WHO and partners are working together to provide scientific advice to countries, as well as user-friendly, web-based tools. These concerted efforts are aimed to stimulate policies and interventions that will save lives.

2014年特码资料大全